Are active children and young people at increased risk of injuries resulting in hospital admission or accident and emergency department attendance? Analysis of linked cohort and electronic hospital records in Wales and Scotland
10 April 2019
Griffiths LJ, Cortina-Borja M, Tingay K, Bandyopadhyay A, Akbari A, DeStavola BL, Bedford H, Lyons RA, Dezateux C
PloS one (2019) 14(4):e0213435
INTRODUCTION: Children and young people (CYP) are encouraged to increase time spent being physically active, especially in moderate and vigorous intensity pursuits. However, there is limited evidence on the prospective association of activity levels with injuries resulting in use of hospital services. We examined the relationship between objectively-measured physical activity (PA) and subsequent injuries resulting in hospital admissions or accident and emergency department (A&E) attendances, using linked electronic hospital records (EHR) from a nationally representative prospective cohort of CYP in Wales and Scotland.
METHODS: We analysed accelerometer-based estimates of moderate to vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) from 1,585 (777 [46%] boys) seven-year-old Millennium Cohort Study members, living in Wales or Scotland, whose parents consented to linkage of cohort records to EHRs up until their 14th birthday. Negative binomial regression models adjusted by potential individual, household and area-level confounders, were fitted to estimate associations between average daily minutes of MVPA, and VPA (in 10-minute increments), and number of injury-related hospital admissions and/or A&E attendances from age nine to 14 years.
RESULTS: CYP spent a median of 59.5 and 18.1 minutes in MVPA and VPA/day respectively, with boys significantly more active than girls; 47.3% of children experienced at least one injury-related admission or A&E attendance during the study period. Rates of injury-related hospital admission and/or A&E attendance were positively associated with MVPA and VPA in boys but not in girls: respective adjusted incidence rate ratios (95% CI) for boys: 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) and 1.16 (1.00, 1.34), and for girls: 0.94 (0.86, 1.03) and 0.85 (0.69, 1.04).
CONCLUSION: Boys but not girls who engage in more intense PA at age seven years are at higher risk of injury-related hospital admission or A&E attendance when aged nine to 14 years than their less active peers. This may reflect gender differences in the type and associated risks of activities undertaken. EHRs can make a useful contribution to injury surveillance and prevention if routinely augmented with information on context and setting of the injuries sustained. Injury prevention initiatives should not discourage engagement in PA and outdoor play given their over-riding health and social benefits.
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